Training may be defined as “a planned programme designed to improve performance and to being about measurable changes in technical knowledge and skills of employees for doing a particular job.”
A formal definition of training is, “it is an attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. The need for training is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency, computed as follows:
Types of training:
Induction (orientation) training: Induction training is basically for introducing the organization to newly appointed employees. The purpose is to give them the bird’s eye view of the organization. It is a very short informative type of training given immediately after joining the organization. For induction training, information booklets are issued and short informative films are shown. In addition, lecture by personnel manager/HRD manager is also arranged. Companies take keen interest in induction training. Induction training is a simple, economical and quick method which introduces the company to newly recruited/appointed employee in an orderly manner.
Job training: Job training relates to specific job which the worker has to handle. It gives information about machines, process of production, instructions to be followed, methods to be used and precautions to be taken while performing the job. This training develops skills and confidence among the workers and enables them to perform the job efficiently.
Training for promotion: Promotion means giving higher position. Training must be given for performing duties at a higher level efficiently. This facilitates easy and quick adjustment with the new job and also develops new insight into the duties and responsibilities assigned. For this, training is given after promotion and before actually joining the new assignment. This training is specific, precise and of short duration.
Refresher training: The purpose of refresher training is to refresh the professional skills, information and experience of persons occupying important executive positions. It gives information about new developments and techniques to trainees. This training is of short duration and is given by professional institutions. Refresher training needs to be given frequently due to rapid technological/managerial developments in the business world. It is useful for updating the knowledge and skills of executives.
Corrective training: corrective training is necessary when employees violate company rules and procedures. For example, absence without prior sanction or smoking in a “No Smoking” area or not using safety devices while operating dangerous machines. Here the behaviour of employees cannot be changed simply by disciplinary action. The manager should motivate, handle the problem and criticize the act and not the individual.
ADDIE Model: The ADDIE model is a systematic instructional design model consisting of five phases:
(4) Implementation, and
Various flavors and versions of the ADDIE model exist. Each step has an outcome that feeds into the next step in the sequence. There are probably over 100+ different variations of the generic ADDIE model. The five phases of ADDIE are as follows:
Analysis: - During analysis, the designer identifies the learning problem, the
goals and objectives, the audience’s needs, existing knowledge, and any
other relevant characteristics. Analysis also considers the learning environment, any constraints, the delivery options, and the timeline for the project.
Design: - A systematic process of specifying learning objectives. Detailed
storyboards and prototypes are often made, and the look and feel, graphic
design, user-interface and content is determined here.
Development: - The actual creation (production) of the content and learning materials based on the Design phase.
Implementation: - During implementation, the plan is put into action and a procedure for training the learner and teacher is developed. Materials are delivered or distributed to the student group. After delivery, the effectiveness of the training materials is evaluated.
Evaluation: - This phase consists of (1) formative and (2) summative evaluation.
Formative evaluation is present in each stage of the ADDIE process.
Summative evaluation consists of tests designed for criterion-related
referenced items and providing opportunities for feedback from the users.
Revisions are made as necessary.
Rapid prototyping (continual feedback) has sometimes been cited as as a way
to improve the generic ADDIE model.